Savannah NWR, which lies on both the South Carolina and Georgia sides of the Savannah River just upriver from the city of Savannah, Georgia, was established April 6, 1927. The refuge 28,168 acres include bottomland hardwoods and tidal freshwater marsh. A 3,000 acre fringe area of upland hardwoods exists along the eastern boundary. An additional 3,000 acres forming an impoundment system are managed for migratory wading birds and waterfowl. These freshwater impoundments were formerly the rice fields of plantations dating back to the mid or late 1700's. Many of the dikes enclosing these pools were originally built during the rice culture era.